Warmflash, David K. Former Astrobiology Institute post-doctoral fellow, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas.
Last reviewed:September 2018
Show previous versions
- Space gravitational biology
- Effects of weightlessness
- Space radiation
- Links to Primary Literature
Collectively, the various biological sciences concerned with the study of organisms when exposed to the environment of space, or of a spacecraft beyond the immediate influence of Earth and its atmosphere. Space biology dates back to November 1957, when the former Soviet Union launched Sputnik 2, carrying a dog, Laika, with instruments monitoring her vital functions. From that point, and in particular through NASA’s Apollo and Skylab programs, the space shuttle era, and the International Space Station (ISS) era that persists today, space biology has developed from experiments conducted both on the ground and off Earth (Fig. 1). See also: Satellite (spacecraft); Space; Space flight; Space station
The content above is only an excerpt.
for your institution. Subscribe
To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible.
to your librarian. Recommend
Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information.
AccessScience provides the most accurate and trustworthy scientific information available.
Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. Its dedicated editorial team is led by Sagan Award winner John Rennie. Contributors include more than 9000 highly qualified scientists and 42 Nobel Prize winners.
MORE THAN 8500 articles and Research Reviews covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology
115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms
3000 biographies of notable scientific figures
MORE THAN 17,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics
ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research
LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information